On Updating QEMU's bsd-user fork

 QEMU bsd-user

bsd-user is a 'user mode' emulation tool. It emulates FreeBSD's system calls on FreeBSD well, and $OTHER-BSD system calls elsewhere to varying degrees of success. It's primary mission has been to build FreeBSD packages using user-mode emulation to speed the process over using system mode. It speeds things up because the compilers and other huge CPU hogs can be built natively.

Of late, it has languished, A few years ago, I started to rebase it to the then-tip of qemu in the hopes of upstreaming. At the time, we'd forked off of qemu 1.0 or so. During this time the then-current qemu was 4.0. I got things rebased to around 3.1 before running out of steam. Rebasing patch trains of 1000 commits is hard, and trying to selectively squash commits wasn't much better.  So that's where things stalled. All bug fixes to qemu bsd-user had gone on in our own private branch.

Recently, I'd been asked about it again, so I started to dust things off. I got my name listed as the maintainer so I could push patches upstream a little more easily, and then started contributing by doing basic cleanup in the hopes of redoing 'logically' what had been done to split things up. Those efforts too have come to naught.

So, in one final act of desperation, I copied the 3.1-rebased bsd-user directory directly into qemu 6.0 and got it building. There were lots of little changes I needed, but nothing super huge. I've not done extensive testing, but the basics seem to work.

Trouble was, that diff was 35k lines. Too big to upstream in one go. So, I set out to see what could be done.

First, I labeled the 'yeet it up  to current' branch as 'blitz'. It's a fast hack to get something we can move forward on. In the future, releases and such will be cut from there until I can get it into the upstream tree. Blitz is the German word for 'fast' and has connotations of doing something quick and dirty well enough to move on.

Next, I created another branch from 6.0 called 'kaizen'. Kaizen is the Japanese business practice of continuous improvement. Find the most painful or most expensive part of your business, fix that and iterate. This branch I'll be putting 'diff reduction' patches for upstream, as well as start to move things over from blitz, starting with the loader. I've disconnected everything except x86 from this branch. In upstream qemu, bsd-user core dumps right away, so I'm not turning off anything that's working.

So the plan is that I'll focus on keeping x86 buildable, and get it working as quickly as I can and then add all the system calls from the blitz branch. I'll add them one group at a time, and do the reorgs and new file creation as well. I'll get these reviewed and upstreamed. Once all the system calls are in place, I'll start adding additional architectures as well, getting those patches reviewed too. Finally, I'll get the NetBSD and OpenBSD hosting stuff updated, as well as take a stab at updating their system call tables and seeing how well it works. The work that Stacey Son and others did tried to preserve all this, but it's been a long time since any of it was tested.

I have an agreement in principle with the qemu upstream to do all this work. So approximately monthly, I'll be landing a new branch with the latest diff reductions. I'll rebase kaizen and blitz after each drop and before I upstream. For the moment, this work will go into my gitlab fork (since it has all the CI setup on it) and from time to time I'll publish back to the github qemu-bsd-user repo. Be advised: both the blitz and kaizen branches will rebase often, so you may need to do weird things to update. Though, if you are tracking them with changes, please be in touch so we can coordinate work.

With luck, by this time next year, the kaizen and blitz branches will be nothing but a distant memory and we'll be on to keeping things up to date in qemu head, maybe with doing some refactoring with linux-user where it makes sense.


Customizing Emacs for Git Commit Messages

 Customizing Emacs for Git Commit Messages

I do a lot of commits to the FreeBSD project and elsewhere. It would be nice if I could setup emacs in a custom way for each commit message that I'm editing.

Fortunately, GNU Emacs provides a nice way to do just that. While I likely could do some of these things with git commit hooks, I find this to be a little nicer.

First up, we need to do something when we pull up the commit message to edit. By convention, git uses the file COMMIT_EDITMSG, though the exact location of this file depends on where the git tree you have checked out is. Emacs has a hook that's run when emacs starts editing a file called 'find-file-hook'. So:
(add-hook 'find-file-hook 'imp-git-hook)

will do the job nicely. Next up, we need to define this function to do something useful when run (indeed, failure to define it will result in an error when visiting all files).

(defun imp-git-hook ()
  (when (string= (file-name-base buffer-file-name) "COMMIT_EDITMSG")

buffer-file-name is a local variable that has the full path name to the buffer, if any. file-name-base is like basename(1) in that it returns the name of the file without the extension, rather than its whole path.

But what is 'freebsd-git-setup'? It's a little function I wrote to set the fill column to 72 (I usually have it at 80, but that produces commit messages that are just a bit wide when git adds leading spaces) and adds a sponsorship tag to my commits:

(defun freebsd-git-setup ()
  (setq fill-column 72)
  (if (re-search-forward "^Sponsored by:" nil t)
   if (re-search-forward "^\n#" nil t)
    (replace-match "\nSponsored by:\t\tNetflix\n\n#")))))

But it only adds the sponsorship tag if one isn't there yet.

This is a proof-of-concept function. No doubt it will have to evolve over time. The project adds 'Differential Revision' tags as the last tag in a commit message because differential requires (required?) that. And it wouldn't be good to add this for non-FreeBSD commits, so I'll have to find a way to filter for that... But I thought this would be useful, if nothing else than to my future self as a roadmap for how to do things like this.


EPSON QX-10 20MB Hard disk

 EPSON QX-10 20MB Hard Disk

I've been looking for some DEC Rainbow 3rd party hard drives of late. QCS (Quality Computer Services) made an external hard disk for the DEC Rainbow. There's advertisements in Digital Review and other trade magazines at the time. It uses a SASI interface, and likely had a DEC Rainbow specific add-in card that they rewarmed from other designs...

One recently came up for sale on E-Bay. I thought I'd buy it to check it out. There was no interface card with it, alas. But it was a box with a WD1006 SASI to MFM controller in it that could handle two different drives. The drives were LUN0 and LUN1.

SASI, for those that don't know, pre-dates SCSI-1. It's kinda sorta SCSI-1 compatible, if you turn off parity, don't allow the drive to signal attention and restrict yourself to a subset of commands. It also doesn't have INQUIRY so you kinda have to know the size of the drive before hand. Most SASI controller drivers of the day wrote a label to drive with this information since it was always possible to read LBA0 w/o knowing anything else about the drive. Some controllers had ways to at least return a size, though that varied a lot...

Since SASI is kinda hard to interface to modern SCSI controllers, I used a MFM reader board I got from David Gesswein over at https://www.pdp8.net/mfm/mfm.shtml to read the drive. I had hoped to find that it was from an old Rainbow and I'd complete my collection of drivers for third party drives...

Much to my surprise, I was able to read it without any errors until it hit the manufacturing tracks (480-489). I pulled a full image, then downloaded it to my FreeBSD box for analysis.

hexdump -C told me it was a CP/M disk (I recognized the directory format). It was clear right away it wasn't a DEC Rainbow disk, however.

The first thing I noticed was the "Bi-Tech Multi Drive Support V4.02" string which indicated who made the driver for it. I also noticed strings like the following
PT.COM for EPSON QX-10 PeachText 5000 date changed - 02/03/84

and similar references to the QX-10 or EPSON CP/M.

So, this was from a Epson QX-10 CP/M system. Looks to be a soft-water service company from South Bend Indiana. All their books and correspondence from the mid 1980s was on it, along with some interesting disk support software. There's even some bits of Z80 assembler, but they are too disjointed to know what they were for.

I've not been able to get cpmtools to read the disk in a structured way, however, so it's hard to share just the interesting bits. Still working on it.

If you have one of these machines, or are interested in preserving software from it, please let me and we may be able to work something out.